what is ram? (detail explain)

What is RAM of computer?

Hello everyone! we’re going to talk about one of the most important parts of a computer what is ram in computer?)and we’re going to be talking about ( What is ram memory? ) primary Memory or temporary Storage and this is called ‘Ram’.Ram stands for Random Access Memory. Ram Is saved on the motherboard in modules that are called DIMMs.

DIMM stands for Dual Inline Memory Module. A DIMM is a dual inline module because it has two independent rows of these pins one on each side. DIMM The memory module has either 184, 240 or 288 pins and then the DIMM is installed on the motherboard in the memory slots. A Motherboard can have various number of memory slots. The average Motherboard will have between 2 and 4 of them, In order for Data or program to run on a computer. First, It needs to be loaded into ram.

So the data or program is first saved on the hard drive then from the hard drive, it’s loaded into RAM And once it’s loaded into RAM the CPU can now access the data or run the program now. A lot of times if the memory is too low it might not be able to hold all the data that the CPU needs and When this happens then some other data has to be kept on the slower hard drive to compensate for the low memory. So instead of the data going from ram to the CPU it has to do extra work by going back to the hard drive and When this happens it slows down the computer.

So to solve this problem, all you need to do is increase the amount of ram on a computer and By increasing the memory more data can be filled into the faster Ram without the need of constantly accessing the slower hard drive and The result is a faster-performing computer. So this is why a computer with more ram performs faster than a computer with less Ram. Ram requires constant electrical power to store Data and if the power is turned off then the data is erased.

Types of RAM 

Ram also comes in separate types such as Dynamic ram or Dram. Dram is a memory that contains capacitors. A Capacitor is like a small bucket that stores electricity, and it’s in these capacitors that hold the bit of information such as a ‘1’ or a ‘0’. Because that’s how computers read Data which is ‘ones’ or ‘zeros’ and because dram has capacitors they have to be refreshed with electricity Constantly because capacitors do not hold a charge for a very long time. They continuously leak and this refreshing is where we get the name ‘Dynamic’. The capacitors have to be dynamically refreshed often otherwise, they will forget the information that they’re holding.

Another type of memory is called ‘SDRAM’. Which stands for Synchronous Dram and this type of memory is what is used today in Ram DIMMs. SDRAM also has capacitors like Dram but the difference among SDRAM and DRAM is basically speeding. The older Dram technology operates Asynchronously with the system clock which basically means that it runs slower than the system clock, because its signals are not coordinated with it, but SDRAM runs in sync with the system clock. Which is why it is faster than DRAM. All the signals are tied to the system clock for a better-controlled timing.

So as stated before RAM is stored on the motherboard in Modules that are called DIMMs and this DIMM comes in different memory sizes today. They range anywhere from 128 megabytes to 32 gigabytes per DIMM. SDRAM is also rated at separate speeds, but before we talk about the speed of RAM. First, we need to explain some things.

Now the term 64 or 32-bit data path mention to the number of bits of data that are transported at a time or in one clock cycle. The more bits that are transferred in one clock cycle then the faster the computer will be. Now DIMMs have a 64-bit data path which means that they can transfer 64 bits of Data at a time. Now prior to DIMMs, there was an older RAM module named a SIM and SIMs had a 32-bit Data path, which means they can transfer data at 32 bits at a time. So that’s why DIMMs are faster than sims because they can transfer twice the amount of data per clock cycle. Because DIMMs transfer 64 bits of Data at a time, Compared to sims which transfer 32 bits of Data at a time. Now a single-bit or one bit of data is the smallest form of data that the computer reads. Because in the computing world, a computer only understands ‘ones’ and ‘zeros’. Which is represented by a single bit of data. Now there is also the term Byte and 8 Bits is equal to one Byte as a result, if a memory DIMM is ready to have a 64-bit Data path, then that means that it has an 8-byte wide data path or bus, because 64 divided by 8 equals 8.

SDRAM is rated at separate speeds, for example, a stick of old SDRAM way back in the late 1990s Could be labeled PC100. The 100 equals a maximum speed at which it operates which is 100 Megahertz and Since SDRAM only comes in 64-bit modules as we discussed earlier. It has an 8-byte wide bus because 64 divided by 8 equals 8. So to figure out the total bandwidth of the PC 100. you multiply 100 Megahertz times 8 bytes, Which equals 800 megabytes per second. So the total Bandwidth of PC 100 equals 800 megabytes per second So, in other words, PC 100 RAM can transfer data at a maximum rate of 800 megabytes per second. So an SDRAM module labeled PC 133, you multiply 133 by 8 which equals 1066. So the Total Bandwidth for PC 133 equals 1066 megabytes per second. Now technically 133 times 8 actually equals 1064. But 1066 is accurate because the actual clock speed is 130. 3.3333 Times 8 which is rounded off to 1066.
Another type of memory was called our ‘DRAM’, which was developed by Rambis inc And they developed the RIM, which stands for Rambus inline memory module. RIMs have 184 pins and looks similar to DIMMs. With the exception that the bottom notches are located in the center of the module. In 1999 Rims were breakthrough in the speed of the memory. But has quickly fallen behind due to the advancement of technology in DIMMs. when our DRAM debuted in 1999 it ran at 800 Megahertz which was considerably faster than SDRAM, which ran at 133 Megahertz at that time. But although it was a lot faster than SDRAM, our DRAM only had a two-byte wide bus collated to SDRAM which had an 8-byte wide bus. So if you increase the speed of ou DRAM which was 800 Megahertz Times the bus width, which was 2 bytes you would get a total bandwidth of 1600 megabytes per second. As Technology increased and processor and bus speeds have gotten faster a new ramp.

The technology was developed to keep up with the faster speeds of computers this newer technology was called DDR. Which stands for Double Data Rate and that’s basically, what DDr. Does. It sends up double the amount of Data in each clock cycle compared to none DDR. Non-DDR or single Data Rate RAM, Uses only the rising edge of the clock signal to transfer data. But DDR Uses both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal to send Data, which gives DDR The capability to send twice the amount of data.

So here is another illustration, Comparing the difference between DDR and non-DDR. Even though the system clock is pulsating at the same speed for both RAM modules.The DDR Ram module can send twice the amount of Data since it takes advantage of both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal. So even if we speed the clock up and make it go faster, the DDR Ram will still send twice the amount of data compared to the non-DDR RAM. DDR Is also labeled separately than non-DDR Ram. DDR RAM May contain both the clock speed and the total bandwidth in its name. So instead of just including the clock speed in its name like PC 133. Where 133 equals the clock speed, DDR Includes the Total Bandwidth also. For example, a DDR DIMM labeled DDR 333 PC 2700.  The 333 is the clock speed and 2700 is the actual total bandwidth. So 333 Megahertz times 8 bytes equals 27 hundred megabytes per second, which is where we get the name, Pc 2700.

A new technology that has succeeded DDR is DDR2. DDR2 is faster than DDR. Because it allows for higher bus speeds and effectively sends twice the amount of data than DDR and it also uses less power than DDR. A DDR2 DIMM has 240 pins compared to DDR. Which has one hundred and eighty-four pins. DDR2 is labeled just like DDR. But with a small difference. For example, a DDR to DIMM could be labeled DDR2 800 PC to 6400 and the difference is the two right after the DDR and the 2 right after the PC. So this is how you can identify DDR2 memory By using its label, and right after DDR2 is DDR3.

DDR3 is twice as fast as DDR2. It also uses less power than DDR2 and just Like DDR2, DDR3 also has 240 pins, but the Notches in the DIMMs are in different places. So you can’t put a DDR3 DIMM in a RAM slot made for a DDR2. In Fact, motherboards are made to sustenance a certain type of memory. So you can’t mix DDR1, 2, 3 or 4 on the same Motherboard. An example of DDR3 would be DDR3 1600 Pc 3 (12800) And the fourth generation of DDR. SDRAM is DDR4. DDR4 DIMMs have 288 pens and like its precessors, it also uses less power than the previous generation of DDR. DDR4 also offers a higher range of speed than DDR3 such as DDR4 (4266) PC 434 100 which has an incredible maximum bandwidth of (34,000) 100 megabytes per second.
For circumstances where memory data corruption cannot be tolerated. For example, in servers, servers are meant to be up and running at all times and Some servers cannot afford to be offline for any reason such as servers that control financial data, emergency medical Data or Government Data. These servers cannot go down for any reason and that’s why some RAM modules have ECC. Which stands for error-correcting code and what ECC does is, that it detects if the data was correctly processed by the memory module and makes a correction if it needs to. You can speak if a ram module has ECC by counting the number of Memory Chips on the module and a Standard Non-ECC then it will have eight memory chips. But in an ECC memory module it will have nine memory chips. Now, most ram modules today are non-ECC and this is because of the advanced and technology. That has minimized memory errors and Has made non-ECC ram more stable, but as stated before, ECC memory is mostly used in servers. Because servers need to be up and running at all times and Using ECC memory is just an extra precaution to guard against any memory errors.
So ‘what is RAM in computer’, in short, Random Access Memory (RAM) is to say that, it is the brainpower of computer.  

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